Nadchodzi era biologów

Wiek XIX należał do chemii, XX – do fizyki, a wszystko w skazuje na to, że XXI zapisze się w historii jako okres niezwykłego rozwoju nauk biologicznych. Postęp naukowo-techniczny przekłada się z kolei na wszystkie dziedziny życia, a także na rynek pracy.

Z dużym prawdopodobieństwem można przewidywać, że za kilka lat najbardziej pożądanymi specjalistami będą osoby wykształcone w kierunkach biologicznych i przyrodniczych oraz mające umiejętności pracy ze sprzętem laboratoryjnym.

Rolnicy i ogrodnicy pracują w laboratoriach

Olbrzymi postęp, który dokonał się w naukach biologicznych, jest szczególnie mocno widoczny w rolnictwie i ogrodnictwie. W tych dziedzinach nie wystarczy już znać szczegółowe wymagania konkretnych gatunków roślin. Dyplomowani rolnicy i ogrodnicy coraz częściej pracują w międzynarodowych koncernach zajmujących się m.in. tworzeniem nowych odmian czy udoskonalaniem nasion przy użyciu najnowocześniejszych, innowacyjnych i wysoko specjalistycznych technik.

„Naukowa wiedza na temat różnych zjawisk biologicznych obecnie bardzo się rozwija. Czasem jedno nowe rozwiązanie pociąga za sobą lawinę kolejnych. Tak było w przypadku odkrycia sposobu powielania DNA. Ten wynalazek spowodował, że badania genetyczne stały się możliwe na znacznie większą skalę” – mówi prof. dr hab. Katarzyna Niemirowicz-Szczytt z Katedry Genetyki, Hodowli i Biotechnologii Roślin SGGW.

Sztuczna inteligencja uczy się biologii

Dzisiejszy rozwój nauk biologicznych jest możliwy dzięki wcześniejszemu postępowi technicznemu – zarówno pod względem sprzętu laboratoryjnego, jak i technologii informatycznych
Na Wydziale Zastosowań Informatyki i Matematyki SGGW pod kierownictwem dr. hab. inż. Michała Kruka pracuje zespół naukowców, którzy programują automatyczne systemy do diagnostyki komputerowej. Odpowiednio przygotowane sieci neuronowe są uczone rozpoznawania obrazów histopatomorfologicznych, czyli zdjęć mikroskopowych przedstawiających wycinki pobrane w trakcie biopsji. „Nawet najlepiej opracowane programy komputerowe nie są w stanie zastąpić lekarza patomorfologa, jednak w przypadkach skrajnych lub niejasnych często są one dokładniejsze od lekarzy. Dzięki temu mogą być bardzo pomocnym narzędziem w rękach doświadczonego specjalisty” – mówi Michał Kruk.

Naukowcy z SGGW od lat współpracują z Wojskowym Instytutem Medycznym w Warszawie. Na swoim koncie mają już kilka sukcesów – udało im się m.in. nauczyć sztuczną inteligencję rozpoznawania nowotworu jasnokomórkowego nerki. Aplikacja, którą stworzyli, jest używana do wspomagania diagnostyki w Zakładzie Patomorfologii WIM.

Biologia w technice

Odkrycia biologiczne mają coraz większe przełożenie na technikę. Być może już niedługo do oświetlania zamiast żarówek będziemy wykorzystywać produkujące światło bakterie. Powoli zastępujemy wytwarzany z ropy plastik tworzywem bardziej przyjaznym dla środowiska i pozyskiwanym z zasobów odnawialnych. Firma Lego zapowiedziała w tym roku rozpoczęcie produkcji ekologicznych klocków z buraków. Podobno pod względem wyglądu i wytrzymałości mają się niczym nie różnić od tych wytwarzanych obecnie. Sukces jest bardzo prawdopodobny.

Pomysłów na wykorzystanie zasobów przyrody w nowoczesny sposób jest znacznie więcej. Naukowcy z Katedry Biotechnologii, Mikrobiologii i Oceny Żywności SGGW wpadli na pomysł, jak za pomocą drożdży z odpadów przemysłowych (gliceryny i wody sokowej) w prosty i tani sposób pozyskać glukan, który doskonale nadaje się jako nośnik szczepionek doustnych dla zwierząt, a także składnik suplementów diety i kosmetyków.

Szkiełko i oko nie wystarczą

W przypadku nauk przyrodniczych wiedza z książek to jednak za mało. Specjaliści w tej dziedzinie muszą przede wszystkim umieć posługiwać się wysoko specjalistycznym sprzętem, takim jak na przykład spektometr mas. Urządzenie to znajduje się m.in. w Laboratorium Metabolomiki Weterynaryjnej SGGW. Metabolomika stwarza olbrzymie możliwości w wielu obszarach nauki. Potrzeba jednak jeszcze wielu badań, by stosowanie jej w praktyce wzrosło.

„Trzeba mieć świadomość, że metabolitów jest kilkaset tysięcy. Dla porównania genów jest 25-30 tys. Przed naukowcami na całym świecie stoi więc wielkie wyzwanie, aby odkryć znaczenie poszczególnych metabolitów i relacji między nimi, a zdobytą wiedzę wykorzystać w praktyce. Dzięki utworzonemu laboratorium będziemy mogli w SGGW prowadzić badania w tym zakresie na światowym poziomie. Dzięki badaniom składników matabolomu jesteśmy w stanie odkryć, jaki wpływ na organizm mają konkretne czynniki genetyczne i środowiskowe, w zupełnie nieinwazyjny sposób z próbki moczu lub krwi diagnozować różnego rodzaju stany patologiczne, a nawet monitorować przebieg choroby i badać skuteczność farmakoterapii oraz postępowania dietetycznego. Analiza składników metabolicznych jest przydatna także w przypadku wykrywania toksyczności lub biodostępności związków biologicznie czynnych zawartych w produktach spożywczych” – powiedział prof. dr. hab. Tomasz Motyl, Kierownik Katedry Nauk Fizjologicznych WMW SGGW.

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